An introduction to the social penetration theory irvin altman and dalmas taylor

This helps the first person to move closer to getting to know the person and how they react to different things.

The more someone discloses to their partner, the greater the intimacy reward will be. Individuals start to reveal the inner self bit by bit, expressing personal attitudes about moderate topics such as government and education.

Individuals are getting more comfortable to talk about private and personal matter, and there are some forms of commitment in this stage. Nurses could apply the theory into daily interactions with patients, as doctors could in their articulations when consulting or announcing.

If they do not want to open up the first time, the first person has to keep talking to the second person and have many conversations to get to the point where they both feel comfortable enough for them to want to talk to each other about more personal topics.

What is worth noting is that Tolstedt and Stokes finds that in the de-penetration process, the self-disclosure breadth reduces, while self-disclosure depth increases. To strengthen the alliance, cultivating a comfortable atmosphere for self-disclosure and self-discovery is important.

Social penetration theory

In other words, penetration is rapid at the start but slows down quickly as the tightly wrapped inner layers are reached. Altman and Taylor proposes that there are four major stages in social penetration: What is worth noting is that unlike in real-life interpersonal relationship, disclosure reciprocity is not expected in parasocial interactions, although through imagined interactions on social medias, followers do feel they are connected to the media figures.

A lack of face-to-face communication can cause heightened skepticism and doubt. One could be completely open about a family relationship while hiding an aspect of a romantic relationship for various reasons such as abuse or disapproval from family or friends.

When the individuals involved in the relationship hold positive values in this calculation, intimacy proceeds at an accelerated rate.

This may not be the whole truth as individuals are not yet comfortable to lay themselves bare. But if an interaction was unsatisfactory, then the relationship will be evaluated for its costs compared to its rewards or benefits. Therefore, the trust built over time among the patient and the therapist is essential to reach a mode of deep discussion.

Each calculation is unique in its own way because every person prefers different things and therefore will give different responses to different questions.

Reality TV is a genre that is characterized with real-life situations and very intimate self-disclosure in the shows. For example, lesbian friendships and intimate relationships are reliant on mutual self-disclosure and honesty.

As for the speed of self-disclosure, Altman and Taylor were convinced that the process of social penetration moves a lot faster in the beginning stages of a relationship and slows considerably. For instance, depth without breadth could be where only one area of intimacy is accessed.

In friendship between females, emotional attachments such as sharing emotions, thoughts, experiences, and supports are at the core, while friendships between males tend to focus on activities and companionships.

In addition, the relationship between nonverbal behavior and the social penetration process has been of interest. This is because as mutual disclosure take place between individuals, they might feel a sense of emotional equity.

The relationship then will slow considerably, and future intimacy is less likely to happen. On the contrary, women disclose their fear more.

Irwin Altman

Relationships are likely to break down not in an explosive argument but in a gradual cooling off of enjoyment and care. Therefore, a Japanese person may not self-disclose nearly as much or as enthusiastically as, say, a French person.

Criticism and arguments may arise. This would be depth without breadth. This is applicable when equal intimacy is involved in friendship, romance, attitudes and families.

On Facebook, users are able to determine their level and degree of self-disclosure by setting their privacy settings McCarthy, For instance, on a first date, people tend to present their outer images only, talking about hobbies.

The online survey which involved Taiwanese bloggers examined the depth and breath of what bloggers disclosed to the online audience, best friend and parents as well as nine topics they revealed. Since this is possible, there is no chance to make a long-lasting and profound connection.

According to Altman and Taylor, relationships are sustained when they are relatively rewarding when the outcome is positive and discontinued when they are relatively costly when the outcome is negative.

There have been surveys conducted about how social networking sites such as FacebookMySpaceTwitterLinkedInhi5myyearbookor Friendster affect interactions between human beings. A comfortable share of positive and negative reactions occurs in this stage. The main factor that acts as a catalyst in the development of relationships is proper self disclosure.

In addition, there is a gender difference regarding to topics revealed. Social penetration theory paper. Compare Search (Please select at least 2 keywords) Most Searched Keywords.

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Irvin Altman & Dalmas Taylor define Social Penetration Theory as “the process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure” (Griffin (, p.

). Jourard (), Cozby (), Wheeles and Grotz () on the other hand explain that. Social Penetration Theory By Irwin Altman And Dalmas Taylor By the third date, we began to self-disclose more personal information about topics such our families, life goals, and fears, which created a more intimate relationship (Assumptions 1 and 3).

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An introduction to the social penetration theory irvin altman and dalmas taylor
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